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Copper knowledge

source:www.czsqqtc.com Published time:2018-07-23
Copper or copper alloy made of various shapes including rods, wires, plates, strips, strips, tubes, foils, etc. collectively referred to as copper. The processing of copper material is rolling, extrusion and drawing. The plate and strip in copper are hot rolled and cold rolled; both the strip and the foil are cold rolled; the pipe and rod are divided into extruded and pulled products; the wire is drawn.
Characteristic:
Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc
Copper is an alloy of copper and nickel
Bronze is an alloy composed of copper and elements other than zinc and nickel, mainly tin bronze, aluminum bronze, etc.
Copper is a copper with a high content of copper. The total content of other impurities is less than 1%.
Pure copper, also known as red copper, has a density of 8.96 and a melting point of 1083 degrees. It has good electrical and thermal conductivity, excellent plasticity, easy to hot press and cold pressure processing, a lot of products are used to make electric wires, cables, brushes, electric spark special electrical corrosion copper and so on.
It is famous for its purple red. It is not necessarily pure copper. Sometimes a small amount of deoxygenation elements or other elements are added to improve the material and properties. Therefore, it is also classified as copper alloy. The Chinese copper processing materials can be divided into four categories: ordinary copper (T1, T2, T3, T4), oxygen free copper (TU1, TU2 and high purity, vacuum oxygen free copper), deoxy copper (TUP, TUMn), and addition of a small amount of alloy elements (arsenic, copper, tellurium, copper and copper).
The conductivity and thermal conductivity of copper are second only to silver, and are widely used in producing conductive and thermal conductive materials. Copper has good corrosion resistance in the atmosphere, sea water and some non oxidizing acids (hydrochloric acid, dilute sulfuric acid), alkali, salt solution and a variety of organic acids (acetic acid, citric acid). It is used in chemical industry. In addition, copper has good weldability and can be manufactured by cold and thermoplastic processes. In 1970s, the output of copper exceeded the total output of other kinds of copper alloys.
The trace impurities in red copper have a serious effect on the conductivity and thermal conductivity of copper. Titanium, phosphorus, iron and silicon significantly reduced conductivity, while cadmium and zinc had little effect. The solid solubility of oxygen, sulphur, selenium and Tellurium in copper is very small. It can produce brittle compounds with copper, and has little effect on the conductivity, but it can reduce the plasticity. When ordinary copper is heated in the reductive atmosphere of hydrogen or carbon monoxide, hydrogen or carbon monoxide is easy to interact with copper oxide (Cu2O) in the grain boundary, producing high pressure water vapor or carbon dioxide gas, which can cause copper to break up. This phenomenon is often called the "hydrogen disease" of copper. Oxygen is harmful to the weldability of copper. Bismuth or lead forms low melting eutectic with copper, resulting in thermal brittleness of copper, while brittle bismuth is distributed in the grain boundary when film is distributed, which makes copper brittle. Phosphorus can significantly reduce the conductivity of copper, but it can improve the fluidity of copper liquid and improve the weldability. Proper amount of lead, tellurium and sulphur can improve machinability.
Brass: copper alloy, with zinc as the main addition element, has a beautiful yellow color and is collectively referred to as brass. Copper and zinc two yuan alloy is called ordinary brass or simple brass. More than three yuan brass is called special brass or complex brass. The brass alloy containing less than 36% zinc is made up of solid solution and has good cold working properties. For example, Huang Tongchang containing 30% zinc is used to make shell, commonly known as shell brass or 73 brass. The brass alloy containing zinc between 36 and 42% is composed of solid solution, and the most commonly used is 64 brass containing 40% zinc. In order to improve the properties of ordinary brass, other elements are often added, such as aluminum, nickel, manganese, tin, silicon, lead and so on. Aluminum can improve the strength, hardness and corrosion resistance of brass, but reduce plasticity. It is suitable for marine condensate pipes and other corrosion resistant parts. Tin can improve the strength of brass and the corrosion resistance of sea water, so called Navy brass, used as ship thermal equipment and propellers. Lead improves the cutting performance of brass; this free-cutting brass is often used as a watch and clock part. Brass castings are often used to make valves and pipe fittings.
Bronze: formerly referred to as copper tin alloy, copper alloy other than brass and white copper is also called bronze, and is often preceded by the name of the first main additive element before bronze name. Tin bronze has good casting properties, good friction reducing properties and good mechanical properties, and is suitable for manufacturing bearings, worm gears, gears, etc. Lead bronze is a widely used bearing material for modern engines and grinders. Aluminum bronze has high strength, good wear resistance and corrosion resistance. It is used for casting high load gears, bushings, marine propellers, etc. Beryllium bronze and phosphorus bronze have high elastic limits and good electrical conductivity. They are suitable for the manufacture of precision springs and electrical contact elements. Beryllium bronze is also used to make sparkless tools used in coal mines and oil depots.
White copper: copper alloy with nickel as the main addition element. Cupric nickel two yuan alloy is called ordinary white copper, and the white copper alloy with manganese, iron, zinc, aluminum and other elements is called complex copper. Industrial white copper is divided into two categories: white copper and electrician white copper. The structure of white copper is characterized by good mechanical and corrosion resistance and beautiful color. This white copper is widely used in the manufacture of precision machinery, chemical machinery and ship components. Electrotechnical white copper generally has good thermoelectric properties.
Manganese copper, copper and copper are manganese dioxide with different manganese content. It is a material for manufacturing precision electrical apparatus, rheostat, precision resistance, strain gauge, thermocouple and so on.
1, brass
1) ordinary brass: it is composed of copper and zinc alloy. When the zinc content is less than 39%, zinc can be dissolved in copper to form a single-phase a, which is called single-phase brass. It has good plasticity and is suitable for cold and hot pressing. When the content of zinc is greater than 39%, there are a single phase and B solid solution based on copper and zinc, which is called double phase brass, B makes small plastic and tensile strength rising, only suitable for hot pressure processing. If the mass fraction of zinc is continued to increase, it is resistant to

  

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