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The application of copper material

source:www.czsqqtc.com Published time:2018-07-23
Application in electrical industry
Power transmission: a large number of high electrical conductivity copper needs to be consumed in power transmission. It is mainly used for power extension, line cable, confluence row, transformer, switch, connector and connector, etc. Electric energy is wasted in the process of wire and cable transmission due to resistance heating. From the point of view of energy saving and economy, the "best cable section" standard is being popularized in the world. In the past, the popular standards are simply from the angle of reducing the installation investment. In order to minimize the cable section, the minimum allowable size of the cable is determined without the danger of overheating under the required rated current of the design. Although the installation fee of cables laid according to this standard is low, the resistance energy consumption is relatively large during long-term use. "The best cable section" standard, taking into account the first installation cost and electric energy consumption of these two factors, appropriately magnify the cable size, in order to achieve energy saving and the best comprehensive economic benefits. According to the new standard, the section of the cable is often more than twice as large as the old standard, and the energy-saving effect of about 50% can be achieved. In the past period of time in China, due to the shortage of steel supply, considering the proportion of aluminum only 30% of copper, the measures of replacing copper with aluminum in the overhead transmission lines which hope to reduce the weight of the high pressure transmission line have been taken. At present, in view of environmental protection, air transmission lines will be replaced by underground cables. In this case, compared with copper, aluminum has the disadvantages of poor conductivity and large cable size.
Motor manufacturing: widely used high conductivity and high strength copper alloys in motor manufacturing. The main parts of copper are stator, rotor and shaft head. In large motors, the winding should be cooled by water or hydrogen, which is called dual water internal cooling or hydrogen cooling motor, which requires a large length of hollow conductor. The motor is a large power user who accounts for about 60% of the total electricity supply. A motor running accumulative electricity cost is very high, generally in the first 500 hours of work to achieve the cost of the motor, in a year is equivalent to 4~16 times the cost, during the entire working life can reach the cost of 200 times. A small increase in motor efficiency can not only save energy, but also achieve significant economic benefits. Developing and applying high efficiency motors is a hot topic in the world. Because the energy consumption of the motor is mainly caused by the resistance loss of the winding, increasing the cross section of copper wire is a key measure to develop high efficiency motors. In recent years, compared with traditional motors, the efficiency of some high efficiency motors has been increased by 25 to 100%. At present, the US Department of energy is funding a development project to produce motor rotors using copper casting technology.
Communication cable: since 80s, due to the large capacity of fiber optic cable carrying capacity, it has continuously replaced copper cable on the communication trunk, and has been widely applied. However, the conversion of electrical energy into light energy and the input of user lines still require a large amount of copper. With the development of communication industry, people rely more and more on communication, and the demand for fiber optic cables and copper wires will increase.
Residential electrical wiring: in recent years, with the improvement of the living standard of our people, the popularity of household appliances has increased rapidly, and the load of residential electricity has increased rapidly. As shown in Figure 6.6, the electricity consumption of residents in 1987 was 26 billion 960 million degrees (L degrees =1 kilowatt hours), and 10 in 1996 rose to 113 billion 100 million degrees, an increase of 3.2 times. Nevertheless, there is still a big gap between the developed countries and the developed countries. For example, in 1995, the electricity consumption per capita in the United States was 14.6 times that of China, and Japan was 8.6 times that of China. The electricity consumption in our country still has a great development in the future. It is expected to increase by L.4 times from 1996 to 2005.
Applications in mechanical and metallurgical industries: copper parts can be found in almost all machines. In addition to the large amount of steel used in the motor, circuit, oil pressure system, air pressure system and control system, a wide variety of gear and fixings made of brass and bronze, such as gear, worm wheel, worm, joint, fastener, twisted piece, screw, nut and so on, are found everywhere. Almost all the components of the mechanical relative movement should be made of bearings or bushes made of wear reducing copper alloy, especially the large extruders of ten thousand tons, the cylinder sleeve of the forging press, and the slider almost all made of bronze, and the weight of the castings can reach tons. Silicon and bronze are used in many elastic elements. Welding tools, die-casting dies and so on are more dependent on copper alloys, and so on.
Metallurgical equipment: metallurgical industry is a large consumer of electrical energy, known as "electric tiger". In the construction of metallurgical plants, there must be a large power transmission and distribution system and power running equipment relying on copper. In addition, in the process of metallurgy, continuous casting technology has occupied the leading position, and the key components, one of which are copper alloys with high strength and high thermal conductivity, are mostly made of chromium copper, silver and copper. The vacuum arc furnace and the electric slag furnace water cooling crucible in electrometallurgy are made of steel tubes. All induction coils of induction heating are made of copper tubes or heteromorphic copper tubes, and the inner water is cooled by water.
Alloy additive: copper is an important addition element in alloys such as steel and aluminum. A small amount of copper (0.2 ~ 0.5%) is added to low alloy structural steel to improve the strength and atmospheric and marine corrosion resistance of steel. Adding copper to corrosion resistant cast iron and stainless steel can further improve their corrosion resistance. The high nickel alloy containing about 30% of copper is a famous high strength corrosion resistant Monel alloy, which is widely used in nuclear industry. Copper contains copper in many high strength aluminum alloys

  

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